Testament Newydd Salesbury - Argraffiad 1850

Idioma: Cymraeg

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Y Testament Newydd Cymraeg Cyntaf 

Yn 1563 pasiwyd deddf yn enw’r Frenhines Elisabeth I, yn gorchymyn esgobion yr eglwys Anglicanaidd yng Nghymru a Henffordd i drefnu bod y Beibl a’r Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin yn cael eu cyfieithu i’r Gymraeg. Richard Davies, Esgob Tyddewi, ei gantor Thomas Huet, a William Salesbury a gyflawnodd y gwaith. Ym mhalas yr Esgob yng Nghaerfyrddin y buon nhw wrthi’n cyfieithu’r Testament Newydd, a hynny o’r Roeg. Richard Davies a gyfieithodd Epistol Cyntaf Timotheus, Hebreaid, Iago, ac 1 a 2 Pedr, a Thomas Huet a gyfieithodd Lyfr y Datguddiad. William Salesbury, fodd bynnag, oedd yn gyfrifol am y rhan fwyaf o’r gwaith. 

Cymraeg y gogledd yw iaith y cyfieithiad yn bennaf, ond mae ffurfiau Cymraeg amrywiol yn y nodiadau ar ymyl y ddalen. Mae cyflwyniad byr i bob llyfr, ond dim ond o 2 Timotheus ymlaen y mae’r adnodau wedi eu rhifo. Cafodd y Testament Newydd ei argraffu mewn teip Gothig gyda nodiadau ar ymyl y ddalen. Roedd y gyfrol yn cynnwys hefyd ‘Epistol at y Cembru’, sef rhagymadrodd yn Gymraeg gan Richard Davies, a chyflwyniad Saesneg i’r Frenhines Elisabeth gan William Salesbury. Cafodd y Testament Newydd ei gyhoeddi gan Humfrey Toy a’i argraffu yn Llundain gan Henry Denham, ac ymddangosodd o’r wasg ar 7 Hydref 1567. 

Testament Newydd Salesbury oedd y Testament Newydd cyntaf yn y Gymraeg. Yn 1588 cyhoeddwyd cyfieithiad William Morgan o’r Beibl llawn yn y Gymraeg am y tro cyntaf. Mae ei gyfieithiad o’r Testament Newydd ac o’r Salmau yn seiliedig i raddau helaeth iawn ar waith Salesbury. 

William Salesbury 

Cafodd William Salesbury ei eni yn Llansannan yn sir Ddinbych, yng ngogledd Cymru, ond treuliodd lawer o’i fywyd yn Llanrwst. Astudiodd yn Rhydychen ac roedd yn rhugl yn y Gymraeg a’r Saesneg ac wedi ei addysgu yn Lladin, Hebraeg a Groeg. Yn 1547 cynhyrchodd y geiriadur Cymraeg-Saesneg cyntaf. Yna yn 1551 Salesbury oedd yn gyfrifol am y cyhoeddiad cyntaf yn y Gymraeg i gynnwys cyfran sylweddol o’r Ysgrythurau, sef Kynniver Llith a Ban, a oedd yn gyfieithiad o’r Efengylau a’r Epistolau a oedd i’w darllen yn yr Eglwys ar y Sul ac adeg Gwyliau. Cyfieithodd y Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin o’r Saesneg ac fe’i cyhoeddwyd, ynghyd â’r Salmau (a gyfieithodd o’r Hebraeg), ar 6 Mai 1567. 

Argraffiad 1850 

Yn 1850 aeth Robert Griffith, llyfrwerthwr o Gaernarfon, ati i gyhoeddi argraffiad newydd o Destament Newydd Salesbury. Fe’i hargraffwyd yng Nghaernarfon gan James Rees, a’r golygydd, yn ôl pob tebyg oedd y clerigwr, Isaac Jones (1804-50) Ceisiwyd cadw’n ffyddlon i’r gwreiddiol, ond diweddarwyd yr orgraff, a’i argraffu mewn ffont fodern i’w wneud yn haws i’w ddarllen. Yn 2017 cafodd y fersiwn hwn ei ddigido gyda chymorth MissionAssist, i ddathlu 450 mlwyddiant Testament Salesbury. Mae rhifau’r adnodau, nad oeddynt yn y rhan fwyaf o’r testun gwreiddiol, wedi eu hychwanegu yn y fersiwn digidol. 

© Cymdeithas y Beibl 2017

First Welsh New Testament 

In 1563 a law was passed in the name of the Tudor Queen Elizabeth I, which instructed the Anglican Bishops in Wales and Hereford to arrange for the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer to be translated into Welsh. The work was accomplished by Richard Davies, Bishop of St David’s, his cantor Thomas Huet, and William Salesbury. They worked at the Bishop’s palace in Carmarthen where they translated the New Testament from Greek. The First Epistle to Timothy, Hebrews, James, and 1 and 2 Peter were translated by Richard Davies, and Revelation was translated by Thomas Huet. However most of the work was by William Salesbury. 

The language of the translation is mainly northern Welsh, but variant Welsh forms are included in marginal notes. Each book has a short introduction and verse numbers were only included from 2 Timothy. The New Testament was printed in Gothic type with notes down the margins. The volume included an introduction in Welsh addressed to the Welsh people by Richard Davies, and a dedication in English to Queen Elizabeth written by William Salesbury. The New Testament was published by Humfrey Toy and printed in London by Henry Denham, and it appeared from the press on 7th October 1567. 

Salesbury’s New Testament was the first New Testament in Welsh. In 1588 Bishop William Morgan produced the first full Bible in Welsh, and his New Testament and Psalms were largely based upon Salesbury’s work. 

William Salesbury 

William Salesbury was born in Llansannan in Denbighshire, in north Wales, and lived for much of his life in Llanrwst. He studied at Oxford and was fluent in Welsh and English and educated in Latin, Hebrew and Greek. In 1547 he produced the first Welsh-English dictionary. In 1551 Salesbury was responsible for the publication of the first substantial portion of the Scriptures to appear in Welsh, entitled Kynniver llith a ban, which was a translation of the Gospels and Epistles appointed to be read in Church on Sundays and Holy-days. He translated the Book of Common Prayer from English, which was published, together with his translation of the Psalms from Hebrew, on 6th May 1567. 

1850 Edition 

In 1850 Robert Griffith a bookseller in Caernafon published a new edition of Salesbury’s New Testament which was printed in Caernarfon by James Rees and probably edited by the clergyman, Isaac Jones (1804-50). This was faithful to the original but the orthography was updated, and it was printed in a modern font to make it easier to read. In 2017 this edition was digitised with the help of MissionAssist, to mark the 450th anniversary of Salesbury’s New Testament. Verse numbers, which were not in most of the original, have been added to the digital version. 

© British and Foreign Bible Society 2017

Informações de direitos autorais

© Cymdeithas y Beibl 2017

© British and Foreign Bible Society 2017